The bottom line is a custom editorial fit for your project and project goals. Developmental editing will move your draft closer to fruition. Editorial services vary from light guidance to blood, sweat, and tears. After years of teaching creative writing and studying story, I find it helpful to revise according to three primary aims.

1. Concrete Realization:  All story must offer livable experience via sensory immersion, a quality Flannery O'Connor describes as the first task of any creative writer.  Under this category, you may receive feedback concerning the effectiveness of your story's physicality, or imagery, or metaphors, as well as recommendations to make your descriptions, dialogue, and setting do more work.

2. Dramatic Conceit: All story is the stuff of high drama. Even the quietest stories concern themselves with moments of external tension in a character's life. In brief, we tell stories about periods of time which are circumstantially significant.  Under this category, you may receive feedback concerning the effectiveness and arrangement of plot, including large-scale "inciting incidents" as well as chapter-sized arcs of tension. I provide recommendations for how to create and sustain a dramatic conceit.

3. Emotional Significance: This category has to do with all things thematic, emotional, and internal. We as humans do not face external obstacles without changing, without worrying and learning, and our characters shouldn't either.  Under this category, you may receive feedback concerning internal conflict and dynamic characterization, with an aim to create a true struggle your readers will recognize as their own.

Next step? Start the conversation today with a free project quote or free sample edit. Services and rates fall in line with those listed at the Editorial Freelancers Association (EFA).



Andrew J. Graff is the author of the novel Bread and Fish, forthcoming with Ecco, an Imprint of Harper Collins (2021). His writing was recently featured in Image Arts Journal. His fiction and nonfiction have appeared in Stolen Island, Image, and Dappled Things. He has taught creative writing and literature at home and abroad, and has served as editor of the Cedarville Review. In 2009, Andrew became an Iowa Arts Fellow and earned an M.F.A. from the University of Iowa Writers' Workshop. In 2011, he was awarded the Clark Fisher Ansley Prize for Excellence in Writing.